The African Union Commission (AUC) is committed to ensure that science and technology in Africa contributes to its sustainable development efforts. The Act establishing the Union recognizes the need for Africa to embark on an ambitious strategic science and technology development programme, aimed at contributing to the wellbeing and improved quality of life for the African citizens. To this end the establishment of the AU in 2002 was accompanied by the setting up the AUC with a special Department of Human Resources, Science and Technology to drive this strategic programme. The AU Commission, as an innovative way to exploit and utilize Africa's existing scientific excellences, promote greater participation and involvement of African scientists, researchers and institutions in implementing of the CPA designed the African Union Research Grant Programme. The objectives of this programme are to build the AU Commission capacity to create a sustainable system of competitive research grants at Pan African level; put in place procedures and processes to manage grants within the AU Commission with the ambition to utilize the accumulated experience to develop in future a fully fledged African Framework Programme for Research; and promote intra-Africa and international cooperation and collaboration in research. It is a financial instrument dedicated to deploy science and to improve research so that it contributes to continent’s sustainable development efforts.